1.1 Population and migration (IOM)
The IOM Global Human Trafficking Database
• The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is using a unique tool to monitor the assistance and collect information on the victims of trafficking (VoTs) it assists. The IOM Global Human Trafficking Database is a global repository of only primary data on registered victims of trafficking (VoTs), and contains data on approximately 20,000 registered victims of more than 85 different nationalities trafficked to more than 100 destination countries (December, 2010).
• It is a standardized anti-trafficking data-management tool available to all IOM missions and is actively used throughout all regions of the world. Containing only primary information, this unique tool specifically facilitates the management of the whole IOM direct assistance, movement and reintegration process through a centrally managed system as well as mapping the victim's trafficking experience. The structure follows the format of the accompanying IOM VoT questionnaires, used by IOM missions and partnering organizations involved in direct assistance, and containing a wealth of information both of a quantitative and qualitative nature: the Screening Interview Form is intended to assess whether the individual is a victim of trafficking and thus eligible for an IOM's assistance project; and the Assistance Interview Form stands to track the nature of direct assistance given along with documenting further details of the trafficking experience.
• While initially designed as a case management tool for IOM counter-trafficking direct assistance programmes, the system quickly demonstrated its added value to research. The aim of the database is to contribute to the general knowledge on trafficking in persons, trafficking trends and to help governments, research institutes as well as other institutions to better tailor CT policies and programmes.
Extended migration profile in Moldova
• Migration profile represents a framework for data collection, analysis and dissemination in support of strategic migration policy planning at the national and regional levels. It brings existing information from different sources together in a structured manner as a means to identify and develop strategies to address data and policy development needs. In order to become a sustainable effective information tool for policy making, the Migration Profile is government-owned and will be updated on a yearly basis.
• Enhancing governmental capacities to more effectively manage migration by preparing an Extended Migration Profile (MP) which is to be used as a policy instrument to promote more comprehensive and proactive approaches:
- To enhance governmental knowledge about migration and its relationship to development;
- To support government in establishing mechanisms for regular reporting on migration-related trend;
- To improve the use of migration information for policy development;
- To foster greater inter-ministerial coordination and collaboration with respect to data collection and policy development.
Ongoing work and forthcoming activities:
• The Moldovan Government launched the process of regular preparing an Extended Migration Profile (EMP) in spring 2010, with the support of the EU-funded project “Supporting the implementation of the migration and development component of the EU-Moldova Mobility Partnership” implemented by IOM. Work continued in 2012 to develop the first report, and ensure the national ownership of the instrument. The aim of the Extended Migration Profile exercise is to foster efficient migration management through supporting the development of evidence-based policies and mechanisms for regular reporting on migration-related trends. Including information such as numbers of immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers, emigrants, results of labour market analysis and an analysis on skill shortages, the Extended Migration Profile also allows measuring the impact of the EU-Moldova Mobility Partnership and contributes evidence to an initial assessment of the impact of future visa liberalization. On 24 August 2012, the Government adopted the Decree Nr. 634 approving the EMP template and the set of indicators. This became an important step for taking over the responsibility for the independent production of the Migration Profile at the national level. Also a national institution was designated with the mandate for the independent production of future editions of the Profile – the Bureau for Migration and Asylum (BMA) of the Ministry of Interior. The work on the first edition of the Extended Migration Profile report was finalized in the fourth quarter of 2012, in close coordination with and under the supervision of an inter-ministerial Technical Working Group (TWG), comprised of a wide array of public institutions. The TWG convened on 24 October 2012 to discuss the final draft of the report, which will be published in early 2013. To ensure the continuity of the TWG, and to further enhance the capacity of national authorities responsible for collecting data and producing future EMP editions, a three-year roadmap was drafted, outlining future actions. The draft roadmap provides a series of consecutive actions required to produce the report, and further improve the process and quality of data related to the international migration.
• The up-coming EC funded project “Making Migration in Moldova Work for Development”, due to start in early 2013, provides for further capacity building activities in Moldova with the focus on generating better evidence for the Moldovan migration policy making for human capital maximisation. The overall respective objectives and activities include:
- Strengthening Moldova’s capacities to monitor migration and manage it proactively with evidence-based policies at the central and systemic levels by: embedding a migration expert with skills on statistics generation and analysis to the BMA - the institution responsible for the state migration information system, and the development on its basis of regular migration analyses with policy implications; transferring data collection expertise and knowledge on international standards among all institutions taking part in migration data production and use.
- Further developing Moldova’s ability to maximise human capital outcomes from migration and enhancing its cooperation with relevant EU MS institutions through: the organization of trainings for 40 officials from data user and producer institutions and of a study trip to Germany for 6 officials. The result will be increased knowledge about effective inter-agency coordination on producing migration evidence, specifically on capturing information on how migration affects development and human capital.
• These actions will feed into the three-year roadmap.
Harmonized data collection as a sound basis for policy-making (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan)
• This pilot project implemented by OSCE and IOM aims at establishing a harmonized data collection process in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan through the development of a common draft template for harmonized migration data collection which will come as a result of assessing the availability of migration data and existing gaps for data collection in these countries.
• The overall objective of the present project is to build institutional capacity among government officials and representatives of national and regional statistical bodies in the five EurAsEC countries for establishing a harmonized migration data collection process through developing common templates for harmonized migration data collection (statistical indicators) which will foster data collection and sharing in the regional.
• The specific objectives of the project proposal are:
- To assess the availability of aggregated migration data in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan and their capacity for data collection with existing mechanisms;
- To detect current gaps for establishing a harmonized data collection process in these countries and develop a common draft template for harmonized migration data collection;
- To provide the target groups in the region with information on the current data availability and existing gaps in the five countries, as well as international and regional legal frameworks for the collection of data and international cooperation at the international, regional and bilateral level.
Ongoing and forthcoming Activities:
• Assessment trips to Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, completed, national reports finalized;
• National and regional workshop on migration data in Russia in spring 2013;
• OSCE/IOM Regional Conference: Promotion of the Handbook on migration data collection (including the synthesis report and draft data collection template) through the Conference, 2013.
An assessment of the exploitation of children and students during the 2011 cotton harvest in Tajikistan
• Combating human trafficking is a key priority for the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Trafficking in persons (TIP) primarily involves exploitation, and as such, the use of child labour during the cotton harvest falls within the scope of IOM activities. As an intergovernmental body, IOM in collaboration with the Government of Tajikistan (GOT) has adopted effective measures to monitor the use of child labour during the cotton harvest.
• Such measures have included assisting the GOT in developing and implementing the National Action Plan (NAP) on Combating Human Trafficking in the Republic of Tajikistan for 2011-2013 and conducting an annual monitoring and awareness campaign during the 2010 and 2011 cotton harvests.
• The aim of the 2011 survey was to produce a situational overview rather than collect economic and geographic data, and therefore, the survey was developed with a qualitative approach rather than quantitative approach.
• The project concentrated on exploring: a) recruitment techniques, b) exploitation tactics, c) forced labour, and d) large scale mobilization of students. The negative consequences related to participation in the harvest, such as health deterioration and effects to educational development, were not explored as it was covered thoroughly in a previous year’s study. The 2011 survey consisted of face-to-face interviews conducted during independent NGOs and IOM/Government joint monitoring field visits targeting a) dekhkan farm owners/brigade leaders and b) child field workers observed working in the cotton fields. In total, 500 farms were visited and 1151 interviews were carried out in 25 cotton-producing districts throughout Tajikistan.
Ongoing and forthcoming Activities:
• IOM Tajikistan received funding for conducting the monitoring in 2012. The 2012 project will end in March 2013 and afterwards an assessment report will be also published in 2013.
Identification and assistance for trafficking victims for the period October 2009 - September 2010 in Albania
• IOM Tirana supported the Albanian National Coalition of Anti trafficking shelters to publish their first report on the contribution to the identification and assistance for trafficking victims for the period October 2009 - September 2010 which includes statistics.
Ongoing and forthcoming activities:
• The report will be tentatively published in the first quarter of 2013.
Screening of deportees at the border between Georgia and Turkey 2012
• In the framework of an US funded project, IOM Georgia conducted the screening in 2012. This activity has been a follow-up to a previous screening activity implemented from April to August 2010, also in Sarpi and with INL support. This report will regularly draw parallels with the results of the screening process in 2010 and highlights if there are any significant changes in migration trends.
• This screening process was conducted at the Sarpi crossing point between Georgia and Turkey on the Black Sea coast by two interviewers, hired by IOM to interview all deportees who were referred to them by the Georgian Patrol Police. This screening process was conducted over a period of six months, starting on 5 April and lasting until 27 September 2012.
• During the six months that the screening interviews were conducted, a total of 837 persons were interviewed.
• The purposes of this screening were twofold:
- To identify the incidence of trafficking in persons affecting migrants, who were deported from Turkey and other countries, and to generate information about the circumstances of deportations;
- To identify possible victims of trafficking in persons among the screened deportees and refer them to specialized law enforcement bodies or victim assistance services.
Ongoing and forthcoming activities:
• IOM Georgia is currently finalizing the report which will be limited distribution.
8) Migration survey and enhanced data collection in Armenia
• With funding from the European Commission’s Thematic programme of cooperation with third countries in the areas of migration and asylum and the IOM Development Fund, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and International Center for Human Development co-implement “Strengthening Evidence-Based Management of Labour Migration in Armenia” Project. The Project’s overall objective is enhancing management of the labour migration flows from Armenia to EU countries. The Project’s specific objectives include, inter alia, strengthening national capacities in migration data collection, analysis and policy formulation. In this regard, the Project aims at (i) Enhancing effectiveness of the migration management information system in Armenia by advocating for legislation, definitions, classifications and methodologies in line with the EU acquis in this area; (ii) Improving mechanisms and procedures for collection of information by promoting policy dialogue and interagency cooperation, building capacities of agencies involved in regulation and management of circular migration in Armenia and promoting partnerships among information commissioners in Armenia and relevant EU countries; (iii) Promoting standards of personal data protection by ensuring that the data collection mechanisms incorporate provisions of the national legislation and EU standards; and (iv) Strengthening capacities of the State Migration Service in preparation of annual reports exposing trends, particularly, in circular migration, as well as the capacities of the Ministry of Territorial Administration in using the analysis of the data on migration in policy analysis and formulation.
• In particular IOM supports the Armenian National Statistics Service (ArmStat) to develop terms of reference, methodology and questionnaire for a nationally representative migration survey and conduct the first such survey. The survey in Armenia aims, among other things, to assess the prevalence of migration in Armenia, including the scope of “non-return migration” (e.g. number of households and persons who have left the country without prospects of coming back) and youth migration; to identify main categories of migrants and describe their main characteristics and reveal the dynamics of the migration patterns; to assess impact of migration on migrants and households (positive vs. negative, health, financial well-being, career well-being, social well-being; to describe remittance patterns and overall financial behaviour of migrants and households (saving behaviour, consumption, potential to engage in entrepreneurship, level of financial skills and knowledge.
• The survey results can be used for preparing Armenia’s migration policy, negotiating Bilateral labour agreements, and providing better services to migrants and returnees by the Migration Resource Centers and Private employment agencies, while the Armenian State Migration Service will use the survey to produce its analytical reports.
• IOM has built the capacities of the relevant stakeholder bodies in Migration Data Management; Migration data collecting, sharing and analysis; and Migration Research. Consultations were organized with the Armenian Government on migration data part of the draft National Plan of Action for State Regulation of Migration in Armenia; as well as Consultations were organized with the Armenian Government on the development of a sustainable methodology for regular migration data collection in Armenia. Since methods of collection of migration data should comply with human rights and fundamental freedoms, and in particular the right to privacy, with regard to automatic processing of personal data relating to the individual, the Government officials will be sensitized about the protection of personal data in migration data processing, and in particular the “Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data” of 1981, which is the main binding international legal instrument with a worldwide scope of application in this field, open to any country, including countries which are not members of the Council of Europe.
• Currently within the framework of the IOM Development Fund Project entitled “Technical Assistance to the Armenian Government to Initiate Labour Migration Arrangements,” IOM Armenia provides technical advice to the Armenian State Migration Service in implementation of 2012-2016 Action Plan for Implementation of the Concept for the Policy of State Regulation of Migration in the Republic of Armenia, namely the NPA’s Activity 4.2 “Development and implementation of actions directed at inclusion of information systems of all migration bodies into a single system, and within that system – defining mechanisms for information exchange”. This in particular pre-supposes defining competences of relevant state bodies responsible for coordination of migration data repositories’ management process and defining competences of state bodies eligible for use of certain data; developing procedures for keeping, interagency repositories on the field of migration, as well as making use, exchanging information thereof; development of methodology for data collection, analysis and exchange for the data systems of migration sphere.
New Migration Profile in Kyrgyzstan
• Kyrgyzstan has long been struggling with the issue of obtaining accurate and reliable, and gender-mainstreamed migration data. Often migration related documents and strategic policy documents have relied on outdated or incomplete statistics. Within the framework of the Central Asian Regional Migration Programme (CARMP) funded by the UK Government and implemented by IOM, in close cooperation with UN Women and the World Bank, IOM has initiated the development of a Migration Profile template for Kyrgyzstan based on the Migration Profile standard proposed by IOM worldwide. These standards have been customized to Kyrgyzstan’s needs and the existing data collection and sharing realities in the country. Once developed and published, the Migration Profile will be the first comprehensive document in Kyrgyzstan reflecting accurate, reliable, and gender-mainstreamed migration data and analysis for policy and decision makers, migration practitioners, academics and researchers.
• Assisting the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in developing the migration policy based on data and analysis provided in the Migration Profile:
- To provide the relevant governmental agencies involved in regulating migration processes with reliable and systematically collected migration data;
- To assist the Kyrgyz Government in utilizing the process of developing the Migration Profile as an inter-agency mechanism for gathering, collecting and sharing gender-mainstreamed migration data;
- To introduce Migration Profile as a means for developing and improving migration policy.
Ongoing and forthcoming activities:
• The development of the Migration Profile in Kyrgyzstan was launched in 2010 with review and analysis of the existing infrastructure for collecting and sharing migration data. A group of local experts, along with international experts and an IOM expert on migration data, reviewed the migration legislation of the country, conducted surveys among experts and specialists of relevant agencies, carried out a series of expert meetings, interagency discussions and training sessions to develop a document containing as many as 17 main data types that exist within the several governmental agencies involved in regulating migration processes.
• Based on the above mentioned work, a group of local experts are currently working on collecting data from various agencies reflecting the flows and trends from 2007 until 2011. Another training session on Migration Profile was conducted in December 2012 by an IOM in-house expert among the representatives of various governmental agencies dealing with migration data. As a result of the training session many confirmed the need in receiving training sessions particularly focusing on data analysis, modern techniques and methodologies used in analyzing the migration data.
• In the future IOM aims to carry out the following activities:
- Once completed and published, the Migration Profile will be widely presented among relevant governmental agencies, experts, migration practitioners, academics and researchers;
- Kyrgyz Government will be encouraged to use the data provided in the Migration Profile for developing and improving migration policy, in amending legislation, etc;
- IOM will continue promoting the Migration Profile further and institutionalizing the document.
• All of these actions will lead to using Migration Profile in the future as an efficient mechanism for inter-agency coordination in regulating migration processes.
Research on sizing return migration in Albania and identifying reintegration needs to advice policy formulation in this area
Description and aim of the research:
• Because of the strong impact the world financial crisis produced on many countries, such as Greece and Italy, which had been prime destination countries for migrants from Albania, return migration from these countries has significantly increased in the last two years. Through IOM funding, IOM Tirana and the National Institute of Statistics, with the support of the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities will be conducting a national research to better size return migration, to build an accurate profile of returning migrants and to guide policy makers on how to tailor reintegration support. This will be the first research of this type in Albania and the methodology will be based on the results of the latest CENSUS in Albania (2011) and the data made available from Migration Counters throughout the country. The findings of the research will serve as a very good baseline for interventions in the area of return, reintegration and local development in Albania.
Ongoing and forthcoming Activities:
• The research methodology is under process of design by INSTAT with the support of IOM Tirana and it will be finalized in the first half of February 2013. The research results are envisioned to be presented in a national workshop in May 2013.