Gross National Income
Atlas GNI per Capita
• The World Bank estimates dollar converted gross national income (GNI) per capita for all borrowing member countries, as well as most other economies;
• Per capita GNI for a country in local currency terms is converted into U.S. dollars by applying the Atlas conversion factor. The Atlas conversion factor is the simple arithmetic average of the current exchange rate and the exchange rates in the previous two years adjusted for the ratio of domestic to international inflation. The change in the GDP-deflator is used as a measure of domestic inflation, and the change in the SDR-deflator to represent international inflation. The SDR-deflator is compiled as a weighted average of the EURO-area, United States, United Kingdom and Japan's GDP-deflators;
• The purpose of applying the Atlas conversion factor is to lessen the effect of fluctuations and abrupt changes in the exchange rate, which can be heavily affected by capital flows. Thus, income measures converted using the Atlas conversion factor tend to be more stable over time, and changes in income rankings are more likely to reflect changes in relative economic performance than exchange rate fluctuations.
The Bank continues its collaboration with the UN, IMF, OECD, and EUROSTAT through the Inter-Secretariat working group on national accounts (ISWGNA). The ISWGNA currently finished the work on updating the SNA, and the English version of the SNA 2008 has been published, and will be translated to all UN languages. The World Bank supports the implementation of the 2008 SNA in developing countries through activities of its regular work program of statistical capacity building. The World Bank is preparing two handbooks complimenting the 2008 SNA aimed specifically at supporting national accountants in small developing countries. The first of these is the 2008 SNA - Concepts in Brief, and the second an accompanying implementation guide, the 2008 SNA - Implementation in Brief. The World Bank is also developing an e-learning course on National Accounts, which will be provided free of charge on the web.
2.3 Business statistics (World Bank)
• Doing Business
The World Bank/International Finance Corporation's Doing Business database provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement. The Doing Business indicators are comparable across 183 economies. They indicate the regulatory costs of business and can be used to analyze specific regulations that enhance or constrain investment, productivity and growth. Topics include: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and closing a business. See the Doing Business website: http://www.doingbusiness.org/ or from the Open Data site at http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/doing-business-database.
• Enterprise Surveys
The World Bank collects data on the business environment in 125 countries based on surveys of more than 100,000 firms. The surveys provide indicators of firm productivity and performance. Topics include: regulations and taxes, permits and licenses, corruption, crime, informal sector, gender, finance, infrastructure, innovation, trade, and work force. See the Enterprise survey website: http://www.enterprisesurveys.org.
• Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI)
The PPI Project Database has data on more than 4,800 projects in 139 low- and middle-income countries. The database is the leading source of PPI trends in the developing world, covering projects in the energy, telecommunications, transport, and water and sewerage. See the PPI database: http://ppi.worldbank.org/.
2.4 Sectoral statistics (World Bank)
2.4.6 Banking, insurance, financial statistics (World Bank)
• The World Bank is involved in the effort to establish standards among international organizations relevant to Financial Statistics, through its active participation in the Inter-Agency Task Force on Finance Statistics. The Inter-Agency Task Force on Finance Statistics is one of the interagency task forces endorsed by the UN Statistical Commission to co-ordinate work among the participating agencies to improve the quality, transparency, timeliness and availability of data on external debt and international reserve assets. The Task Force is chaired by the IMF and includes representatives from the BIS, ECB, EUROSTAT, OECD, UN, and the World Bank which have collaborated to produce these data.
• The World Bank's Financial Sector has published a comprehensive database of national Financial Sector Development Indicators including key data on banking, equity markets, and bond markets.
2.6 International trade and balance of payments (World Bank)
External Debt Statistics
• The World Bank's Debt Reporting System (DRS) requires every member country, which has received either an IBRD loan or an IDA credit to provide information on its external debt. The borrowing countries are required to report their long-term external debt on the following forms:
i) Form 1 - Description of Individual External Public Debt and Private Debt Publicly Guaranteed which consists of information on each loan characteristics, such as commitment date, amount of loan commitment, loan purpose, interest rate, and terms and conditions of payments;
ii) Form 1A - Schedule of Drawings and Principal and Interest Payments for Individual External Public Debt and Private Debt Publicly Guaranteed, purpose of which is to enable the Bank to make projections of future payments of principal and interest for those loans that have irregular patterns of repayments;
iii) Form 2 - Individual External Public Debts and Private Debts Publicly Guaranteed: Current Status and Transactions During Period. This form contains loan-by-loan information on debt stocks and debt flows during the reporting period;
iv) Form 3 - To contain specific amendments to Forms 1 and 2;
v) Form 4 - External Private Non-Guaranteed Debt to include aggregate stocks and flows data on long-term external private non-guaranteed debt.
• The World Bank has been working closely with the Commonwealth secretariat and the UNCTAD to improve the data collection across the globe.
• The Joint External Debt Hub (JEDH) brings together external debt data and selected foreign assets from international creditor/market and national debtor sources and was recently expanded to include data from Berne Union Data will be expanded to include additional indicators from Paris Club and IMF's SDR allocations. The creditor/market data are complemented in the JEDH by series from the World Bank's Quarterly External Debt Database from national sources. National data has been extended to not only SDDS/QEDS countries but also GSSD/QEDS countries. Data are updated on a quarterly basis. As a pilot project of the Statistical Data and Metadata Exchange (SDMX), JEDH applies technological innovation to the context and content of information being exchanged with the aim of generating efficiencies through the convergence of data flows into a common framework. The Bank is also working in collaboration with the IMF and other partners to improve statistics on remittance flows to developing countries. The system is accessible from: http://www.jedh.org.
• The Quarterly External Debt (QEDS) database, jointly developed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, brings together detailed external debt data of countries that subscribe to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) and General Data Dissemination System (GDDS). The benefit of bringing together comparable external debt data for a large number of SDDS-subscribing countries in one central location is to facilitate macroeconomic analysis and cross-country data comparison.Sixty six SDDS countries (66) and forty four GDDS countries are currently participating in this initiative. The system is accessible from: http://www.worldbank.org/qeds.
• The Quarterly Public Sector Debt Statistics (QPSD) database, jointly developed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, brings together detailed quarterly public sector debt data of selected developing /emerging market countries. The main purpose of the PSD database is to facilitate timely dissemination in standard formats of public sector debt data. By bringing such data and metadata together in one central location, the database supports macroeconomic analysis and cross-country comparison. The participation of countries in this centralized database is voluntary. Currently, 62 developing countries have agreed to participate and 34 provided data to the PSD database. The World bank and IMF in cooperation with OECD will invite the advanced economies to join this initiative starting in the year 2012. The database is updated quarterly and within one month of the end of a quarter. These databases aim to support countries' efforts toward improving the coverage and availability of public sector debt data. The system is accessible from: http://www.worldbank.org/qpsd.
• DECDG also published the Global Development Finance 2012: External Debt of Developing Countries, which is a continuation of the World Bank's publications Global Development Finance, Volume II (1997 through 2009), it contains statistical tables for 129 countries as well as summary tables for regional and income groups. To find-out more, go to http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/global-development-finance.
Foreign Trade Statistics
The web-based World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) is a software developed by the World Bank, in close collaboration and consultation with various International Organizations including United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), International Trade Center (ITC), United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD) and World Trade Organization (WTO). This new software does not require installation and it is fully web-based. WITS gives you access to major international trade, tariffs and non-tariff data:
• The United Nations COMTRADE database maintained by UNSD
• The TRAINS maintained by the UNCTAD;
• The IDB and CTS databases maintained by the WTO.
The merchandise trade data is based on bilateral trade between every reporting and trading partner. Tariff and non-tariff data are from UNCTAD files. The system also provides tariff data from WTO's IDB and CTS databases. In addition, WITS contains simulation tools that are extremely useful for trade negotiations. Users can simulate the impact of tariff changes on trade flows. To access the new WITS, visit http://wits.worldbank.org/WITS/.
In addition to the software, the Bank launched two new trade visualizers. Users can view their data using bubble charts and the map visualizer. "Bubble charts" display data in four dimensions. In each chart, the size of the country circle represents a volume measure, such as population or GDP. The position of the bubbles is determined by the indicators selected for the horizontal and vertical axes. The visualizer can be accessed from http://devdata.worldbank.org/TradeVisualizer/. The "map visualizer" animates the export and import trade data from the UNSD COMTRADE database by commodity and partner country from 1988-2008. It can be accessed from http://devdata.worldbank.org/TradeMapVisualizer/DataVisualizer.html.
2.7 Prices (World Bank)
International Comparison Programme
• The International Comparison Program is a global statistical initiative under the auspices of the United Nations Statistical Commission, designed to collect comparative price data and compile detailed expenditure values of countries' gross domestic products (GDP), and to estimate purchasing power parities (PPPs) of the world's economies. It contributes substantially towards the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations by improving the reliability of estimates of those living in poverty and enabling more accurate comparisons of GDP and component levels across countries.
• The number of participating economies has grown to 198 in the current round, up from 146 in the 2005 ICP round. This round covers about 98 percent of the world population. According to information provided by ICP regions and OECD-Eurostat programme in October 2011, 155 countries have started survey in the 1st or 2ndquarter of 2011, out of 198 countries identified to participate in the program. Countries in Pacific Islands and Caribbean Islands are expected to conduct their price survey in 2012. The Global Office is expecting to receive validated 1st and 2nd quarter data from the ICP Regions by December 31, 2011.
• The overall work plan remains effectively on schedule and the final results are expected to be released in December 2013 as originally planned. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is coordinating participation of 10 countries to the International Comparison Program. Activities for this region include collection of prices and National accounts data and processing of Purchasing Power Parities.
• In accordance with the ICP work schedule, in the CIS region, all 10 CIS participating countries have started to collect the data on prices for ICP in January of 2011. During the period from October 2010, to November 2011, major activities carried out in the CIS region included regional meetings on the regional list of consumer items and issues pertaining to the computation of GDP estimates.
• The meeting on the problems of achieving reliability and comparability of GDP data in national currencies on the basis of SNA 1993 was held in Moscow from November 30 to December 2, 2010. It was jointly organized by CIS- STAT and Rosstat and attended by two experts from each CIS country responsible for national accounts and price statistics respectively.
• The meeting on the preparation of the regional list was held in Astana (Kazakhstan) on November 8, 2011. It was attended by statistical experts from: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and a representative of CIS -STAT.
• The meeting on harmonization of investment representative goods was held on March 23-25, 2011 in Moscow, Russia. The CIS regional list for machinery and equipment was discussed at the meeting. Methodological issues and specifications of construction materials were also discussed and the participants confirmed the use of the resource-technological models method (RTM), a method harmonized with the standard ICP methodology. The metadata tables recommended by the Global Office will be translated and sent to the countries in order to obtain their filled tables by June 2011.
For more information, please see http://www.worldbank.org/data/icp.