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Annex B: Glossary

 

Object

Group

Definition

Explanatory Text

Synonyms

Administrative Details

Base

A placeholder for extensions to the model based on an organization’s administrative needs.

The Administrative Details object is designed to act as a 'placeholder' to allow for future extensions to the existing model. It allows for further information to be added about the administrative details required to maintain the other objects outlined by GSIM.

 

Administrative Register

Exchange

A source of administrative information which is obtained from an external organization (or sometimes from another department of the same organization)

The Administrative Register is a source of administrative information obtained from external organizations. The Administrative Register would be provided under a Provision Agreement with the supplying organization. This administrative information is usually collected for an organization’s operational purposes, rather than for statistical purposes.

 

Agent

Base

An actor that performs a role in relation to the statistical Business Process.

An Agent may be either an Organization or an Individual. An Organization may be an entire organization or entities within a larger organization, such as departments or divisions. An Organization may have sub Agents, which may be either other Organizations within the parent Organization or Individuals that belong to that Organization.

 

Agent Role

Base

The function or activities of an Agent, in regard to their involvement in the statistical Business Process.

An Agent Role may apply to either type of Agent - an Organization or Individual. A common example would be to identify which individuals or departments within an organization provide administrative data.

 

Assessment

Business

The result of the analysis of the quality and effectiveness of any activity undertaken by a statistical organization and recommendations on how these can be improved.

An Assessment can be of a variety of types. One example may include a gap analysis, where a current state is determined along with what is needed to reach its target state. Alternately, an Assessment may compare current processes against a set of requirements, for example a new Statistical Need or change in the operating environment.

An Assessment can use various information objects as inputs, whether they are the main objects that the Assessment is about or auxiliary information objects that help accomplish the Assessment.

 

Attribute Component

Structures

The role given to a Represented Variable in the context of a Data Structure, which supplies information other than identification or measures.

For example the publication status of an observation (e.g. provisional, final, revised)

 

Business Case

Business

A proposal for a body of work that will deliver outputs designed to achieve outcomes. A Business Case will provide the reasoning for undertaking a Statistical Support Program to initiate a new Statistical Program Design for an existing Statistical Program, or an entirely new Statistical Program, as well as the details of the change proposed.

A Business Case is produced as a result of a detailed consideration of a Change Definition. It sets out a plan for how the change described by the Change Definition can be achieved. A Business Case usually comprises various evaluations. The Business Case will specify the stakeholders that are impacted by the Statistical Need or by the different solutions that are required to implement it.

 

Business Function

Business

Something an enterprise does, or needs to do, in order to achieve its objectives.

A Business Function delivers added value from a business point of view. It is delivered by bringing together people, processes and technology (resources), for a specific business purpose.

Business Functions answer in a generic sense "What business purpose does this Business Service or Process Step serve?" Through identifying the Business Function associated with each Business Service or Process Step it increases the documentation of the use of the associated Business Services and Process Steps, to enable future reuse.

A Business Function may be defined directly with descriptive text and/or through reference to an existing catalogue of Business Functions. The phases and sub processes defined within GSBPM can be used as an internationally agreed basis for cataloguing high level Business Functions. A catalogue might also include Business Functions defined at a lower level than "sub process". For example, "Identify and address outliers" might be catalogued as a lower level Business Function with the "Review, validate and edit" function (5.3) defined within GSBPM.

 

Business Process

Business

The set of Process Steps to perform one of more Business Functions to deliver a Statistical Program Cycle or Statistical Support Program.

For example, a particular Statistical Program Cycle might include several data collection activities, the corresponding editing activities for each collection and the production and dissemination of final outputs. Each of these may be considered separate Business Processes for the Statistical Program Cycle.

 

Business Service

Business

A means of performing a Business Function (an ability that an organization possesses, typically expressed in general and high level terms and requiring a combination of organization, people, processes and technology to achieve).

A Business Service may provide one means of accessing a particular Business Function. The operation of a Business Service will perform one or more Business Processes.

The explicitly defined interface of a Business Service can be seen as representing a "service contract". If particular inputs are provided then the service will deliver particular outputs in compliance within specific parameters (for example, within a particular period of time).

Note: The interface of a Business Service is not necessarily IT based. For example, a typical postal service will have a number of service interfaces:

- Public letter box for posting letters

- Counter at post office for interacting with postal workers

 

Category

Concepts

A Concept whose role is to extensionally define and measure a characteristic.

Categories for the Concept of sex include: Male, Female

Note: An extensional definition is a description of a Concept by enumerating all of its sub ordinate Concepts under one criterion or sub division.

For example - the Noble Gases (in the periodic table) is extensionally defined by the set of elements including Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon. (ISO 1087-1)

class

Category Item

Concepts

An element of a Category Set.

A type of Node particular to a Category Set type of Node Set. A Category Item contains the meaning of a Category without any associated representation.

 

Category Set

Concepts

A list of Categories

A Category Set is a type of Node Set which groups Categories through the use of Category Items. The Categories in a Category Set typically have no assigned Designations (Codes).

For example:
Male, Female

 

Change Definition

Business

A structured, well-defined specification for a proposed change.

A related object - the Statistical Need - is a change expression as it has been received by an organization. A Statistical Need is a raw expression of a proposed change, and is not necessarily well-defined. A Change Definition is created when a Statistical Need is analyzed by an organization, and expresses the raw need in well-defined, structured terms.

A Change Definition does not assess the feasibility of the change or propose solutions to deliver the change - this role is satisfied by the Business Case object. The precise structure or organization of a Change Definition can be further specified by rules or standards local to a given organization. It also includes the specific Concepts to be measured and the Population that is under consideration.

Once a Statistical Need has been received, the first step is to do the conceptual work to establish what it is we are trying to measure. The final output of this conceptual work is the Change Definition.

The next step is to assess how we are going to make the measurements - to design a solution and put forward a proposal for a body of work that will deliver on the requirements of the original Statistical Need

 

Classification Family

 

Concepts

A Classification Family is a group of Classification Series related from a particular point of view. The Classification Family is related by being based on a common Concept (e.g. economic activity).

Different classification databases may use different types of Classification Families and have different names for the families, as no standard has been agreed upon.

 

Classification Index

 

Concepts

A Classification Index is an ordered list (alphabetical, in code order etc.) of Classification Index Entries. A Classification Index can relate to one particular or to several Statistical Classifications.

A Classification Index shows the relationship between text found in statistical data sources (responses to survey questionnaires, administrative records) and one or more Statistical Classifications.  A Classification Index may be used to assign the codes for Classification Items to observations in statistical collections.

A Statistical Classification is a subtype of Node Set. The relationship between Statistical Classification and Classification Index can also be extended to include the other Node Set types - Code List and Category Set.

 

Classification Index Entry

Concepts

A Classification Index Entry is a word or a short text (e.g. the name of a locality, an economic activity or an occupational title) describing a type of object/unit or object property to which a Classification Item applies, together with the code of the corresponding Classification Item. Each Classification Index Entry typically refers to one item of the Statistical Classification. Although a Classification Index Entry may be associated with a Classification Item at any Level of a Statistical Classification, Classification Index Entries are normally associated with items at the lowest Level.

A Classification Item is a subtype of Node. The relationship between Classification Item and Classification Index Entry can also be extended to include the other Node types - Code Item and Category Item.

 

Classification Item

 

Concepts

A Classification Item represents a Category at a certain Level within a Statistical Classification. It defines the content and the borders of the Category. A Unit can be classified to one and only one item at each Level of a Statistical Classification.

 

 

Classification Series

 

Concepts

A Classification Series is an ensemble of one or more Statistical Classifications, based on the same concept, and related to each other as versions or updates. Typically, these Statistical Classifications have the same name (for example, ISIC or ISCO).

 

 

Code

Concepts

A Designation for a Category.

Codes are unique within their Code List. Example: M (Male) F (Female).

 

Code Item

Concepts

An element of a Code List.

A type of Node particular to a Code List type of Node Set. A Code Item combines the meaning of the included Category with a Code representation.

 

Code List

Concepts

A list of Categories where each Category has a predefined Code assigned to it.

A kind of Node Set for which the Category contained in each Node has a Code assigned as a Designation.

For example:
1 - Male
2 - Female

 

Code Value

Concepts

An alpha-numeric string used to represent a Code.

A Code Value is a subtype of Sign - a way of denoting the value of a Code. This is a kind of Sign used for Codes.

 

Concept

Concepts

Unit of thought differentiated by characteristics.

 

 

Concept System

Concepts

Set of Concepts structured by the relations among them.

Here are 2 examples 1) Concept of Sex: Male, Female, Other 2) ISIC (the list is too long to write down)

 

Conceptual Domain

Concepts

Set of valid Concepts.

The Concepts can be described by either enumeration or by an expression.

 

Correspondence Table

Concepts

A Correspondence Table expresses the relationship between two Statistical Classifications. These are typically: two versions from the same Classification Series; Statistical Classifications from different Classification Series; a variant and the version on which it is based; or, different versions of a variant. In the first and last examples, the Correspondence Table facilitates comparability over time. Correspondence relationships are shown in both directions.

A Statistical Classification is a subtype of Node Set. The relationship between Statistical Classification and Correspondence Table can also be extended to include the other Node Sets - Code List and Category Set.

 

Data Point

Structures

A placeholder (or cell) for the value of an Instance Variable

Field in a Data Structure which corresponds to a cell in a table. The Data Point is structural and distinct from the value (the Datum) that it holds.

 

Data Resource

Structures

An organized collection of stored information made of one or more Data Sets.

Data Resources are collections of data that are used by a statistical activity to produce information. Data Resource is a specialization of an Information Resource.

data source

Data Set

Structures

An organized collection of data.

Examples of Data Sets could be observation registers, time series, longitudinal data, survey data, rectangular data sets, event-history data, tables, data tables, cubes, registers, hypercubes, and matrixes. A broader term for Data Set could be data. A narrower term for Data Set could be data element, data record, cell, field.

database, data file, file, table

Data Structure

Structures

Defines the structure of an organized collection of data (Data Set).

The structure is described using Data Structure Components that can be either Attribute Components, Identifier Components or Measure Components. Examples for unit data include social security number, country of residence, age, citizenship, country of birth, where the social security number and the country of residence are both identifying components and the others are measured variables obtained directly or indirectly from the person (Unit).

 

Data Structure Component

Structures

The role of the Represented Variable in the context of a Data Structure.

A Data Structure Component can be an Attribute Component, Measure Component or an Identifier Component.

Example of Attribute Component: The publication status of an observation such as provisional, revised.

Example of Measure Component: age and height of a person in a Unit Data Set or number of citizens and number of households in a country in a Data Set for multiple countries (Dimensional Data Set).

Example of Identifier Component: The personal identification number of a Swedish citizen for unit data or the name of a country in the European Union for dimensional data.

 

Datum

Concepts

A value.

A Datum is the actual instance of data that was collected or derived. It is the value which populates a Data Point. A Datum is the value found in a cell of a table.

value

Described Conceptual Domain

Concepts

A Conceptual Domain defined by an expression.

For example: All real numbers between 0 and 1.

Non-enumerated conceptual domain

Described Value Domain

Concepts

A Value Domain defined by an expression.

For example: All real decimal numbers between 0 and 1.

Non-enumerated value domai

Designation

Concepts

The name given to an object for identification.

The association of a Concept with a Sign that denotes it.

 

Dimensional Data Point

Structures

A placeholder (or cell) for the value of an Instance Variable with respect to either a Unit or Population.

A Dimensional Data Point is uniquely identified by the combination of exactly one value for each of the dimensions (Identifier Component) and one measure (Measure Component). There may be multiple values for the same Dimensional Data Point that is for the same combination of dimension values and the same measure. The different values represent different versions of the data in the Data Point. Values are only distinguished on the basis of quality, date/time of measurement or calculation, status, etc. This is handled through the mechanisms provided by the Datum information object.

cell

Dimensional Data Set

Structures

A collection of dimensional data that conforms to a known structure.

 

 

Dimensional Data Structure

Structures

Describes the structure of a Dimensional Data Set.

For example (city, average income, total population) where the city is the Identifier Component and the others are measured variables.

 

Enumerated Conceptual Domain

Concepts

A Conceptual Domain expressed as a list of Categories

For instance, the Sex Categories: 'Male' and 'Female'

 

Enumerated Value Domain

Concepts

A Value Domain expressed as a list of Categories and associated Codes.

Example - Sex Codes <m, male>; <f, female>; <o, other>.

 

Environment Change

Business

A requirement for change that originates from a change in the operating environment of the statistical organization.

An Environment Change reflects change in the context in which a statistical organization operates. Environment Changes can be of different origins and also take different forms. They can result from a precise event (budget cut, new legislation enforced) or from a progressive process (technical or methodological progress, application or tool obsolescence). Other examples of Environment Changes include the availability of a new Information Resource, the opportunity for new collaboration between organizations, etc.

 

Exchange Channel

Exchange

A means of exchanging data.

An abstract object that describes the means to receive (data collection) or send (dissemination) information.

Different Exchange Channels are used for collection and dissemination. Examples of collection Exchange Channel include Questionnaire, Web Scraper Channel and Administrative Register. The only example of a dissemination Exchange Channel currently contained in GSIM is Product. Additional Exchange Channels can be added to the model as needed by individual organizations.

 

Identifiable Artefact

Base

An abstract class that comprises the basic attributes and associations needed for identification, naming and other documentation.

An instance of any GSIM information object is an Identifiable Artifact.

 

Identifier Component

Structures

The role given to a Represented Variable in the context of a Data Structure to identify the unit in an organized collection of data.

An Identifier Component is a sub-type of Data Structure Component. The personal identification number of a Swedish citizen for unit data or the name of a country in the European Union for dimensional data.

 

Individual

Base

A person who acts, or is designated to act towards a specific purpose.

 

 

Information Consumer

Exchange

A person or organization that consumes disseminated data.

The Information Consumer accesses a set of information via a Product (or potentially via another Exchange Channel), which contains one or more Presentations. The Information Consumer's access to the information is subject to a Provision Agreement, which sets out conditions of access.

 

Information Provider

Exchange

An Individual or Organization that provides collected information.

An Information Provider possesses sets of information (that it has generated, collected, produced, bought or otherwise acquired) and is willing to supply that information (data or referential metadata) to the statistical office. The two parties use a Provision Agreement to agree the Data Structure and Referential Metadata Structure of the data to be exchanged via an Exchange Channel.

information supplier, data supplier

Information Request

Business

An outline of a need for new information required for a particular purpose.

An Information Request is a special case of Statistical Need that may come in an organized form, for example by specifying on which Subject Field the information is required. It may also be a more general request and require refinement by the statistical agency and formalized in a Change Definition.

 

Information Resource

Structures

An abstract notion that is any organized collection of information.

There currently are only two concrete sub classes: Data Resource and Referential Metadata Resource. The Information Resource allows the model to be extended to other types of resource.

 

Information Set

Structures

Organized collections of statistical content.

Statistical organizations collect, process, analyze and disseminate Information Sets, which contain data (Data Sets), referential metadata (Referential Metadata Sets), or potentially other types of statistical content, which could be included in addition types of Information Set.

 

Instance Question

Exchange

The use of a Question in a particular Questionnaire.

The Instance Question is the use of a Question in a particular Questionnaire Component. This also includes the use of the Question in a Question Block, which is a particular type of Questionnaire Component.

 

Instance Question Block

Exchange

The use of a Question Block in a particular Questionnaire.

The Instance Question Block is the use of a Question Block in a particular Questionnaire Component. This also includes the use of a Question Block in another Question Block, as it is a particular type of Questionnaire Component.

 

Instance Statement

Exchange

The use of a Statement in a particular Questionnaire.

The Instance Statement is the use of a Statement in a particular Questionnaire Component. This also includes the use of the Statement in a Question Block, which is a particular type of Questionnaire Component.

 

Instance Variable

Concepts

The use of a Represented Variable within a Data Set. It may include information about the source of the data.

The Instance Variable is used to describe actual instances of data that have been collected. Here are 3 examples:
1) Gender: Dan Gillman has gender <m, male>, Arofan Gregory has gender<m, male>, etc.
2) Number of employees: Microsoft has 90,000 employees; IBM has 433,000 employees, etc.
3) Endowment: Johns Hopkins has endowment of <3, $1,000,000 and above>,
Yale has endowment of <3, $1,000,000 and above>, etc.

 

Level

Concepts

A Statistical Classification has a structure which is composed of one or several Levels. A Level often is associated with a Concept, which defines it. In a hierarchical classification the Classification Items of each Level but the highest are aggregated to the nearest higher Level. A linear classification has only one Level.

A Statistical Classification is a subtype of Node Set. The relationship between Statistical Classification and Level can also be extended to include the other Node Set types - Code List and Category Set.

 

Logical Record

Structures

Describes a type of Unit Data Record for one Unit Type within a Unit Data Set.

Examples: household, person or dwelling record.

 

Map

Concepts

A Map is an expression of the relation between a Classification Item in a source Statistical Classification and a corresponding Classification Item in the target Statistical Classification. The Map should specify whether the relationship between the two Classification Items is partial or complete. Depending on the relationship type of the Correspondence Table, there may be several Maps for a single source or target item.

The use of Correspondence Tables and Maps can be extended to include all types of Node and Node Set. This means that a Correspondence Table could map between the items of Statistical Classifications, Code Lists or Category Sets.

 

Measure Component

Structures

The role given to a Represented Variable in the context of a Data Structure to hold the observed/derived values for a particular Unit in an organized collection of data.

A Measure Component is a sub-type of Data Structure Component. For example age and height of a person in a Unit Data Set or number of citizens and number of households in a country in a Data Set for multiple countries (Dimensional Data Set).

 

Node

Concepts

A combination of a Category and related attributes.

A Node is created as a Category, Code or Classification Item for the purpose of defining the situation in which the Category is being used.

 

Node Set

Concepts

A set of Nodes.

Node Set is a kind of Concept System. Here are 2 examples:

1) Sex Categories

  • Male
  • Female
  • Other


    2) Sex Codes
  • <m, male>
  • <f, female>
  • <o, other>

 

 

Organization

Base

A unique framework of authority within which a person or persons act, or are designated to act, towards some purpose.

 

 

Output Specification

Exchange

Defines how Information Sets consumed by a Product are presented to Information Consumers.

The Output Specification specifies Products and defines the Presentations they contain. The Output Specification may be fully defined during the design process (such as in a paper publication or a predefined web report), or may be a combination of designed specification supplemented by user selections (such as in an online data query tool).

 

Population

Concepts

The total membership of a defined class of people, objects or events.

A population is used to describe the total membership of a group of people, objects or events based on characteristics, e.g. time and geographic boundaries.

Here are 3 examples –
1. US adult persons on 13 November 1956
2. US computer companies at the end of 2012
3. Universities in the US 1 January 2011.

 

Presentation

Exchange

The way data and referential metadata are presented in a Product.

A Product has one or more Presentations, which present data and referential metadata from Information Sets. A Presentation is defined by an Output Specification.

Presentation can be in different forms; e.g. tables, graphs, structured data files.
Examples:

  • A table of data. Based on a Data Set, the related Data Structure is used to label the column and row headings for the table. The Data Set is used to populate the cells in the table. Reference metadata is used to populate footnotes and cell notes on the table. Confidentiality rules are applied to the Data Set to suppress any disclosive cells.
  • A data file based on a standard (e.g. SDMX).
  • A PDF document describing a Classification.
  • Any structural metadata object expressed in a standard format (e.g. DDI 3.1 XML).
  • A list of Products or services (e.g. a product catalogue or a web services description language (WSDL) file).
  • A web page containing Classifications, descriptions of Variables, etc.

 

 

Process Control

Business

A set of decision points which determine the flow between the Process Steps used to perform a Business Process.

The typical use of Process Control is to determine what happens next after a Process Step is executed. The possible paths, and the decision criteria, associated with a Process Control are specified as part of designing a production process, captured in a Process Control Design. There is typically a very close relationship between the design of a process and the design of a Process Control.

 

Process Control Design

Business

The specification of the decision points required during the execution of a Business Process.

The design of a Process Control typically takes place as part of the design of the process itself. This involves determining the conditional routing between the various sub-processes and services used by the executing process associated with the Process Control and specified by the Process Control Design.

It is possible to define a Process Control where the next step in the Process Step that will be executed is a fixed value rather than a "choice" between two or more possibilities. Where such a design would be appropriate, this feature allows, for example, initiation of a step in the Process Step representing the GSBPM Process Phase (5) to always lead to initiation of GSBPM sub-process Integrate Data (5.1) as the next step.

This allows a process designer to divide a Business Process into logical steps (for example, where each step performs a specific Business Function through re-use of a Business Service) even if these process steps will always follow each other in the same order. In all cases, the Process Control Design defines and the Process Control manages the flow between Process Steps, even where the flow is "trivial". Process Design is left to focus entirely on the design of the process itself, not sequencing between steps.

 

Process Design

Business

The specification of how a Process Step will be performed. This includes specifying the types of Process Inputs required and the type of Process Outputs that will be produced.

A Process Design is the design time specification of a Process Step that is performed as part of a run-time Business Service. A Process Step can be as big or small as the designer of a particular Business Service chooses. From a design perspective, one Process Step can contain "sub-steps", each of which is conceptualized as a (smaller) Process Step in its own right. Each of those "sub-steps" may contain "sub-steps" within them and so on indefinitely. It is a decision for the process designer to what extent to subdivide steps. At some level it will be appropriate to consider a Process Step to be a discrete task (unit of work) without warranting further subdivision. At that level the Process Step is designed to process particular Process Inputs, according to a particular Process Method, to produce particular Process Outputs. The flow between a Process Step and any sub steps is managed via Process Control.

 

Process Input

Business

Any instance of an information object which is supplied to a Process Step Instance at the time its execution is initiated.

Process Input might include information that is used as an input that will be transformed (e.g. a Data Set), information that is used to control specific parameters of the process (e.g. a Rule), and information that is used as reference to guide the process (e.g. a Code List).

 

Process Input Specification

Business

A record of the types of inputs required for a Process Design.

The Process Input Specification enumerates the Process Inputs required at the time a Process Design is executed. For example, if five different Process Inputs are required, the Process Input Specification will describe each of the five inputs. For each required Process Input the Process Input Specification will record the type of information object (based on GSIM) which will be used as the Process Input (example types might be a Dimensional Data Set or a Classification).

The Process Input to be provided at the time of Process Step execution will then be a specific instance of the type of information object specified by the Process Input Specification. For example, if a Process Input Specification requires a Dimensional Data Set then the corresponding Process Input provided at the time of Process Step execution will be a particular Dimensional Data Set.

 

Process Method

Business

A specification of the technique which will be used to perform the unit of work.

The technique specified by a Process Method is independent from any choice of technologies and/or other tools which will be used to apply that technique in a particular instance. The definition of the technique may, however, intrinsically require the application of specific Rules (for example, mathematical or logical formulas).

A Process Method describes a particular method for performing a Process Step.

 

Process Output

Business

Any instance of an information object which is produced by a Process Step as a result of its execution.

Process Outputs have an attribute of Process Output Type, which has two possible values:

  • Transformed Output is the result which provides the "reason for existence" of the Process Step. If that output were no longer required then there would be no need for the Process Step in its current form. Typically a Transformed Output is either a Process Input to a subsequent Process Step or it represents the final product from a statistical business process.

 

  • A Process Metric records information about the execution of a Process Step. For example, how long it took to complete execution of the Process Step and what percentage of records in the Process Input was updated by the Process Step to produce the Transformed Output.

 

 

Process Output Specification

Business

A record of the types of outputs required for a Process Design.

The Process Output Specification enumerates the Process Outputs that are expected to be produced at the time a Process Design is executed. For example, if five different Process Outputs expected, the Process Output Specification will describe each of the five outputs. For each expected Process Output the Process Output Specification will record the type of information object (based on GSIM) which will be used as the Process Output (Example types might be a Dimensional Data Set or a Classification).

The Process Output to be provided at the time of Process Step execution will then be a specific instance of the type of information object specified by the Process Output Specification. For example, if a Process Output Specification expects a Dimensional Data Set then the corresponding Process Output provided at the time of Process Step execution will be a particular Dimensional Data Set.

 

Process Pattern

Business

A nominated set of Process Designs, and associated Process Control Designs (flow), which have been highlighted for possible reuse.

In a particular Business Process, some Process Steps may be unique to that Business Process while others may be applicable to other Business Processes. A Process Pattern can be seen as a reusable template. It is a means to accelerate design processes and to achieve sharing and reuse of design patterns which have proved effective. Reuse of Process Patterns can indicate the possibility to reuse related Business Services.

By deciding to reuse a Process Pattern, a designer is actually reusing the pattern of Process Designs and Process Control Designs associated with that Process Pattern. They will receive a new instance of the Process Designs and Process Control Designs. If they then tailor their "instance" of the Process Designs and Process Control Designs to better meet their needs they will not change the definition of the reusable Process Pattern.

 

Process Step

Business

A Process Step is a work package that performs a Business Process. A Process Step implements the Process Step Design specified in order to produce the outputs for which the Process Step was designed.

Each Process Step is the use of a Process Step Design in a particular context (e.g. within a specific Business Process). At the time of execution a Process Step Instance specifies the actual instances of input objects (for example, specific Data Sets, specific Variables) to be supplied.

 

Process Step Instance

Business

An executed step in a Business Process. A Process Step Instance specifies the actual inputs to and outputs from for an occurrence of a Process Step.

Each Process Step is the use of a Process Step Design in a particular context (e.g. within a specific Business Process). At the time of execution a Process Step Instance specifies the actual instances of input objects (for example, specific Data Sets, specific Variables) to be supplied.

Each Process Step Instance may produce unique results even though the Process Step remains constant.

Even when the inputs remain the same, metrics such as the elapsed time to complete execution of process step may vary from execution to execution. For this reason, each Process Step Instance details of inputs and outputs for that instance of implementing the Process Step.

In this way it is possible to trace the flow of execution of a Business Process through all the Process Steps which were involved.

 

Product

Exchange

A package of content that can be disseminated as a whole.

A Product is the only defined type of Exchange Channel for outgoing information. A Product packages Presentations of Information Sets for an Information Consumer. The Product and its Presentations are generated according to Output Specifications, which define how the information from the Information Sets it consumes are presented to the Information Consumer. The Protocol for a Product determines the mechanism by which the Product is disseminated (e.g. website, SDMX web service, paper publication).

A Provision Agreement between the statistics office and the Information Consumer governs the use of a Product by the Information Consumer. The Provision Agreement, which may be explicitly or implicitly agreed, provides the legal or other basis by which the two parties agree to exchange data. In many cases, dissemination Provision Agreements are implicit in the terms of use published by the statistics office.

For static Products (e.g. paper publications), specifications are predetermined.  For dynamic products, aspects of specification could be determined by the Information Consumer at run time. Both cases result in Output Specifications specifying Information Set data or referential metadata that will be included in each Presentation within the Product.

 

Protocol

Exchange

The mechanism for exchanging information through an Exchange Channel.

A Protocol specifies the mechanism (e.g. SDMX web service, data file exchange, web robot, face to face interview, mailed paper form) of exchanging information through an Exchange Channel.

 

Provision Agreement

Exchange

The legal or other basis by which two parties agree to exchange data.

A Provision Agreement between the statistical organization and the Information Provider (collection) or the Information Consumer (dissemination) governs the use of Exchange Channels. The Provision Agreement, which may be explicitly or implicitly agreed, provides the legal or other basis by which the two parties agree to exchange data. The parties also use the Provision Agreement to agree the Data Structure and Referential Metadata Structure of the information to be exchanged.

 

Question

Exchange

Describes the text used to elicit a response for the Concept to be measured.

A Question may be a single question used to obtain a response, or may be a multiple question, a construct which links multiple sub-questions, each with their own response.

A Question also includes a relationship to the Value Domain to document the associated response criteria for the question. A single response question will have one Value Domain associated with it, while a 'multiple question' may have more than one Value Domain.

A Question should be designed with re-use in mind, as it can be used in multiple Questionnaires.

Multiple Question

Question Block

Exchange

A set of Questions, Statements or instructions which are used together.

A Question Block should be designed for reuse, as it can be used in multiple Questionnaires. The Question Block is a type of Questionnaire Component. A statistical organization will often have a number of Question Blocks which they reuse in a number of Questionnaires. Examples of Question Blocks include:

  • Household Question Block
  • Income Question Block
  • Employment Question Block

 

Question Module

Questionnaire

Exchange

A concrete and usable tool to elicit information from observation units.

 

This is an example of a way statistical organizations collect information (an exchange channel). Each mode should be interpreted as a new Questionnaire derived from the Questionnaire Specification.

The Questionnaire is a subtype of Exchange Channel, as it is a way in which data is obtained.

 

Questionnaire Component

Exchange

A record of the flow of a Questionnaire Specification and its use of Questions, Question Blocks and Statements

Defines the structure of the Questionnaire Specification, as a combination of Questions, Question Blocks and Statements. It is the object which groups together all the components of a Questionnaire.

A Questionnaire Component is recursive, in that it can refer to other Questionnaire Components and accompanying Questionnaire Logic objects at a lower level. It is only at the top level where the Questionnaire Component links to the Questionnaire Specification,

Question Block

Questionnaire Logic

Exchange

Governs the sequence of Questions, Question Blocks and Statements based on factors such as the current location, the response to the previous questions etc., invoking navigation and validation rules to apply.

 

Routing

Questionnaire Specification

Exchange

The tool designed to elicit information from observation Units.

This represents the complete questionnaire design, with a relationship to the top level Questionnaire Component.

There may be many different Questionnaire Specifications, for the same surveys, or tailored to individual observation Units (respondents) so that there would be a different Questionnaire Specification for each respondent. The design would also differ depending upon the specific mode of collection the Questionnaire is designed for.

 

Record Relationship

Structures

Describes relationships between Logical Records within a Unit Data Structure. It must have both a source Logical Record and a target Logical Record in order to define the relationship.

Example: Relationship between person and household Logical Records within a Unit Data Set.

 

Referential Metadata Attribute

Structures

The role given to a Represented Variable to supply information in the context of a Referential Metadata Structure.

 

 

Referential Metadata Content Item

Structures

The content describing a particular characteristic of a Referential Metadata Subject.

A Referential Metadata Content Item contains the actual content describing a particular characteristic of a Referential Metadata Subject.

 

Referential Metadata Resource

Structures

An organized collection of stored information consisting of one or more Referential Metadata Sets.

Referential Metadata Resources are collections of structured information that may be used by a statistical activity to produce information. This information object is a specialization of an Information Resource.

 

Referential Metadata Set

Structures

An organized collection of referential metadata for a given Referential Metadata Subject.

Referential Metadata Sets organize referential metadata. Each Referential Metadata Set uses a Referential Metadata Structure to define a structured list of Referential Metadata Attributes for a given Referential Metadata Subject.

 

Referential Metadata Structure

Structures

Defines the structure of an organized collection of referential metadata (Referential Metadata Set).

A Referential Metadata Structure defines a structured list of Referential Metadata Attributes for a given Referential Metadata Subject.

Examples of Referential Metadata Attributes are those that describe quality information and methodologies. Examples of subject are: objects like a Questionnaire or a Classification, or collections of data like a Data Set, or any Data Point or set of Data Points created from a specific Data Structure.

Metadata Structure Definition

Referential Metadata Subject

Structures

Identifies the subject of an organized collection of referential metadata.

The Referential Metadata Subject identifies the subject of the metadata that can be reported using this Referential Metadata Structure. These subjects may be any GSIM object type, or any Data Point or set of Data Points created from a specific Data Structure.

Examples: The GSIM object type may be Product for which there is a list specified in a Value Domain. The Value Domain specifies the list of actual Products for which reference metadata can be reported or authored using this Referential Metadata Structure.

 

Referential Metadata Subject Item

Structures

Identifies the actual subject for which referential metadata is reported.

Examples are an actual Product such as Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia, June 2013, or a collection of Data Points such as the Data Points for a single region within a Data Set covering all regions for a country.

 

Represented Variable

Concepts

A combination of a characteristic of a population to be measured and how that measure will be represented.

Example:

The pair (Number of Employees, Integer), where "Number of Employees" is the characteristic of the population (Variable) and "Integer" is how that measure will be represented (Value Domain).

 

Rule

Business

A specific mathematical or logical expression which can be evaluated to determine specific behavior.

Rules are of several types: they may be derived from methods to determine the control flow of a process when it is being designed and executed; they may be used as the input parameters of processes (e.g., imputation rules, edit rules); and they may be used to drive the logical flow of a questionnaire. There are many forms of Rules and their purpose, character and expression can vary greatly.

 

Scraping Process Map

Exchange

Maps a web scraping process to a specific website.

Scraping Process Map is an essential element of the Web Scraper Channel. The process being mapped can be a Business Service or a Process Step.

 

Sign

Concepts

Something that suggests the presence or existence of a fact, condition, or quality.

It is a perceivable object. This object is used to denote a Concept as a Designation.

 

Statement

Exchange

A report of facts in a Questionnaire

Statements are often included to provide further explanation to respondents. Example:

"The following questions are about your health".

The object is also used to represent completion instructions for the interviewer or respondent.

Statement should be designed with re-use in mind as it can be used in numerous Questionnaires.

Interviewer Instruction

Instruction

Statistical Classification

 

Concepts

A Statistical Classification is a set of Categories which may be assigned to one or more variables registered in statistical surveys or administrative files, and used in the production and dissemination of statistics. The Categories at each Level of the classification structure must be mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive of all objects/units in the population of interest.

The Categories are defined with reference to one or more characteristics of a particular population of units of observation. A Statistical Classification may have a flat, linear structure or may be hierarchically structured, such that all Categories at lower Levels are sub-Categories of Categories at the next Level up. Categories in Statistical Classifications are represented in the information model as Classification Items.

 

Statistical Need

Business

A requirement, request or other notification that will be considered by an organization. A Statistical Need does not necessarily have structure or format - it is a 'raw' need as received by the organization. A Statistical Need may be of a variety of types including Environmental Change or Information Request.

The Statistical Need is a proposed or imposed requirement, request or other notification as it has been received by an organization. A Statistical Need is a raw expression of a requirement, and is not necessarily well-defined. A related object - Change Definition - is created when a Statistical Need is analyzed by an organization. Change Definition expresses the raw need in well-defined, structured terms.
Once a Statistical Need has been received, the first step is to do the conceptual work to establish what it is we are trying to measure. The final output of this conceptual work is the Change Definition.

In some cases, the Statistical Need can result from the Assessment of the quality, efficiency, etc. of an existing process.

 

Statistical Program

Business

A set of activities, which may be repeated, that describes the purpose and context of a set of Business Process within the context of the relevant Statistical Program Cycles.

The Statistical Program is one of a family of objects that provide the environmental context in which activities to produce statistics within a statistical organization are conducted. Statistical Program is the top level object that describes the purpose and objectives of a set of activities. Statistical Program will usually correspond to an ongoing activity such as a survey or output series. Some examples of Statistical Program are:

  • Labour Force Survey - Multipurpose Household Survey - National Accounts - Demography - Overseas Arrivals and Departures

Related to the Statistical Program object there are Statistical Program Design and Statistical Program Cycle objects that hold the detailed information about the design and conduct of the Business Process.

In the case of the traditional approach, an organization has received a Statistical Need and produced a Change Definition and an approved Business Case. The Business Case will specify either a change to the design or methodology of an existing Statistical Program, which will result in a new Statistical Program Design; or a change to one or more existing Statistical Programs (for example, to add an additional objective to the Statistical Program); or result in a new Statistical Program being created.

This does not include statistical support functions such as metadata management, data management (and other overarching GSBPM processes) and design functions. These activities are conducted as part of Statistical Support Programs.

 

Statistical Program Cycle

Business

A set of activities to investigate characteristics of a given Population for a particular reference period.

A Statistical Program Cycle documents the execution of an iteration of a Statistical Program according to the associated Statistical Program Design for a certain reference period. It identifies the activities that are undertaken as a part of the cycle and the specific resources required and processes used and description of relevant methodological information used in this cycle defined by the Statistical Program Design.

 

Statistical Program Design

Business

The specification of the resources required, processes used and description of relevant methodological information about the set of activities undertaken to investigate characteristics of a given Population.

The Statistical Program Design is an objects that provide the operational context in which a set of Business Processes is conducted.

A simple example is where a Statistical Program relates to a single survey, for example, the Labour Force Survey. The Statistical Program will have a series of Statistical Program Design objects that describe the methodology and design used throughout the life of the survey. When a methodological change is made to the survey, a new Statistical Program Design is created to record the details of the new design.

 

Statistical Support Program

Business

A program which is not related to the post-design cyclic production of statistical products, but is necessary to support cyclical production.

This type of program will include such functions as metadata management, data management, methodological research, and design functions. These programs correspond to the horizontal functions shown in the GSBPM, as well as programs to create new or change existing Statistical Programs.

 

Subject Field

Concepts

One or more Concept Systems used for the grouping of Concepts and Categories for the production of statistics.

A Subject Field is a field of special knowledge under which a set of Concepts and their Designations is used. For example, labour market, environmental expenditure, tourism, etc.

subject area, theme

Unit

Concepts

The object of interest in a Business Process

Here are 3 examples - 1. Individual US person (i.e., Arofan Gregory, Dan Gillman, Barack Obama, etc.) 2. Individual US computer companies (i.e., Microsoft, Apple, IBM, etc.) 3. Individual US universities (i.e., Johns Hopkins, University of Maryland, Yale, etc.)

 

Unit Data Point

Structures

A placeholder (or cell) for the value of an Instance Variable with respect to a Unit.

This placeholder may point to multiple values representing different versions of the data. Values are only distinguished on the basis of quality, date/time of measurement or calculation, status, etc. This is handled through the mechanisms provided by the Datum information object.

cell

Unit Data Record

Structures

Contains the specific values (as a collection of Unit Data Points) related to a given Unit as defined in a Logical Record.

For example (1212123, 48, American, United Kingdom) specifies the age (48) in years on the 1st of January 2012 in years, the current citizenship (American), and the country of birth (United Kingdom) for a person with social security number 1212123.

 

Unit Data Set

Structures

A collection of data that conforms to a known structure and describes aspects of one or more Units.

Example: A synthetic unit record file is a collection of artificially constructed Unit Data Records, combined in a file to create a Unit Data Set.

micro data, unit data, synthetic unit record file

Unit Data Structure

Structures

Describes the structure of a Unit Data Set.

For example (social security number, country of residence, age, citizenship, country of birth) where the social security number and the country of residence are the identifying components (Identifier Component) and the others are measured variables obtained directly or indirectly from the person (Unit) and are Measure Components of the Logical Record.

file description, dataset description

Unit Type

Concepts

A Unit Type is a class of objects of interest

A Unit Type is used to describe a class or group of Units based on a single characteristic, but with no specification of time and geography.  For example, the Unit Type of “Person” groups together a set of Units based on the characteristic that they are ‘Persons’.

It concerns not only Unit Types used in dissemination, but anywhere in the statistical process. E.g. using administrative data might involve the use of a fiscal unit.

Object class (ISO 11179)

Value Domain

Concepts

The permitted range of values for a characteristic of a variable

The values can be described by enumeration or by an expression

 

Variable

Concepts

The use of a Concept as a characteristic of a Population intended to be measured

The Variable combines the meaning of a Concept with a Unit Type, to define the characteristic that is to be measured.

Here are 3 examples -
1. Sex of person
2. Number of employees
3. Value of endowment

 

Web Scraper Channel

Exchange

A concrete and usable tool to gather information from the Internet.

 

This is an example of a way statistical organizations collect information (an Exchange Channel). The Web Scraper Channel contains Scraping Process Maps, which map the channel to each website targeted for scraping.

 

 

 

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