1.1 Population and migration
Ongoing methodological work:
• The ILO will continue its methods development in the field of migration statistics.
• Participation in various statistical workshops, such as the meetings of the European-Asian Programme on Forced Displacement and Migration (EAP) on the subject of data collection, exchange, and registration; UN expert group meetings; ECE/US Census Bureau/World Bank sponsored conference on using household surveys to measure remittances.
• The International Migration Data Base has been largely revised and will continue to be updated in 2010, in close cooperation with other international and regional entities. It is available on the ILO data warehouse at http://laborsta.ilo.org
Economically active population
• Estimates and projections of the economically active population and activity rates by age, sex and sector have been published since 1971. The most recent edition of the Estimates and Projections of economically active population in 2009 provides estimates and projections for the period 1980 2020 for 191 countries and territories and 29 economic and geographical grouping (available at http://laborsta.ilo.org). Work on its update will continue in 2010.
Rural Employment Statistics
• The ILO and FAO will seek to collaborate on a joint venture to measure rural employment with a view to fully assessing the presence of agriculture and agricultural labour in strategies for development. The ILO has drawn attention to the importance of statistical information on employment and work in agriculture, describing how the agricultural census can be adapted as a collection tool to provide countries with such essential information. This is of particular interest to countries (including Eastern Europe and CIS countries) where special surveys of agricultural labour may not be in place.
• ILO will supplement its earlier contributions to this work ""Guidelines on Employment, Supplement to the Programme for the World Census of Agriculture 2000", FAO Statistical Development Series 5a) prepared together with the FAO Statistics Division. The focus on agricultural and non-agricultural labour in 2010 may also broaden coverage from not only economic activity, as defined and measured within the production boundary of the United Nations System of National Accounts, but also encompass work in unpaid services in rural households and agricultural holdings for own-consumption.
• A manual on measuring volunteer work will be finalised after a meeting of the Technical Expert Group to be held in 2010. Its recommendations will be applied in a number of pilot countries in the coming years.
Ongoing methodological work
• Following the 18th International Conference of Labour Statisticians' adoption in December 2008 of the Resolution on the Measurement of Working Time which provides a comprehensive measurement of time spent on work in today's world, the ILO Department of Statistics will collaborate with selected pilot countries. Follow up work has so far been requested in the Latin American region, to be explored further in 2010. Experience in the EU region will be sought where available so as to create synergies.
• Based on the adopted scope and objectives of working time, trial measurements carried out through household-based labour force surveys using recommended methods may specifically relate to working time activities within the SNA production boundary - including employment statistics and national production accounts, as well as to activities beyond the SNA production boundary - including "unpaid household and volunteer service work".
Measurement of decent work and quality of employment
• As a follow-up to the national Tripartite Workshop on the preparation of the pilot Decent Work Profile of Ukraine (Kiev, August 2009), technical assistance will be provided to the Ministry of Labour and State Statistics Committee on the measurement of occupational wages within the ILO/EC project Monitoring and Assessing Progress on Decent Work (MAP).
• Work will begin on the collection and publication of some of the key ILO decent work indicators.
• The ILO has developed a database on forced labour, which relies on secondary sources and includes information on reported cases. In 2005, this database was used to calculate the ILO's first global estimate of the total number of forced labour victims in the world. The ILO is also focusing on technical cooperation for developing reliable national statistics at the country-level, and providing benchmarks by which progress can be measured over time. Five countries from different regions have initially been selected for producing these national estimates, guided by the recommendations from a workshop held in December 2006. Following a review, more countries will be selected. The findings for a wider range of countries will be assessed in the 2010.
Since its establishment over 90 years ago, the ILO has been collecting and disseminating statistics on a wide array of labour topics. The ILO central data warehouse for labour statistics is LABORSTA. All the series described below can be accessed at http://laborsta.ilo.org
• Annual data on the economically active population, employment, unemployment, hours of work, wages, labour cost, consumer price indices, occupational injuries and strikes and lockouts are collected regularly for dissemination in the ILO Yearbook of Labour Statistics, by CD-ROM and on the LABORSTA website which is updated each month. Descriptions of the methods used to compile these statistics are produced and disseminated in the Sources and Methods: Labour Statistics series of publications, by CD-ROM and on the LABORSTA website. Beginning in 2006, the Yearbook has been published in two volumes: Volume 1 has time series for each country usually covering the preceding ten years, and (ii) Volume 2 has a "country profile" format showing the latest available labour statistics for each country.
• Monthly, quarterly or biannual data on employment, unemployment, hours of work, wages and consumer price indices have been collected regularly for dissemination in the ILO Bulletin of Labour Statistics. A review of the topics and methods of data collection for short-term indicators is foreseen for 2010.
• Following the 2008 financial crisis which rapidly deteriorated the labour market situation in many countries, the ILO started to publish in December 2008 selected statistics on employment, unemployment, wages, hours of work, and consumer prices at the country level for which data are produced on a monthly or quarterly basis. These indicators have been selected for their ability to reflect recent and short-term changes. The data are updated and disseminated each month in the online Monthly Bulletin on Labour Information, available on the ILO's Job Crisis Observatory webpage http://www.ilo.org/pls/apex/f?p=109:1:0 . The monthly Bulletin includes estimates on aggregate-level trends including global trends for selected indicators.
• Statistics on wages, hours of work relating to 159 occupations in 49 industry groups and of retail prices of 93 food items have been collected regularly with the ILO October Inquiry and disseminated in the publication Occupational Wages and Hours of Work and Retail Food Prices - Statistics from the ILO October Inquiry, on CD-ROM and on the statistical website. Major revision of this publication is also planned for 2010. It will include a revision of (1) the industries and occupations within these industries for which labour information is to be collected and (2) the labour variables for which data should be collected (including hours, earnings and wages).
• Series on public sector employment for 140 countries, areas and territories are updated with biannual periodicity, the last update having taken place in 2009.
• A number of other series are updated less frequently. These include the databases on :
o distribution of employed population by hours of work
o household income and expenditure statistics
o informal employment
o employment in the informal sector
o trade union membership
o labour migration
• Comparable data on employment and unemployment are collected each year as part of the programme on ILO-comparable estimates.
• A new survey to collect information on collective bargaining coverage and trade union density was carried out at the end of 2008. The purpose of this survey is to develop statistical indicators of social dialogue and workplace relations.
• In addition to expanding the coverage of the topics and the coverage of the countries and territories, significant efforts are being made to improve the quality of the statistics collected and disseminated and (ii) to reduce the reporting burden on national statistical bodies. The latter includes the collaboration with UNSD with respect to data sharing of statistics on the economically active population, the joint data collection with Eurostat for the Member States of the European Union on strikes and lockouts, and the use of electronic questionnaires. The Department of Statistics is working on the possibility of exchanging data and metadata more rapidly by using SDMX and other electronic means.
G-20 Labour Market Situation and Outlook Reports
• Given the ILO's recent status as a full member of the G20, it has been actively involved in providing up-to-date information on the impact of the current economic crisis on the labour market for G20 countries. In September 2009 the ILO produced a report for the G20 Leaders' Summit in Pittsburgh, Protecting people, promoting jobs. A survey of country employment and social protection policy responses to the global economic crisis. The report provided recent G20 country trends in employment and unemployment, with a discussion of the situation of developing countries as well as a survey of employment and social protection measures taken by governments to counter the crisis.
• The ILO is currently preparing several new reports covering a range of labour topics in relation to the crisis for the upcoming G20 Labour Ministerial scheduled for April 2010.
The ILO set of Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM)
• The ILO publication Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM), first published in 1999, continues to be produced and refined. KILM is published every other year (the 6th edition was launched in September 2009). The KILM makes labour market information and analysis easily accessible based on a core set of 20 labour market indicators from countries around the world.
1.5 Income and consumption
Household Income and Expenditure
• Work is being planned on the preparation of a technical guide on household income and expenditure statistics, in collaboration with the International Household Survey Network.
• Statistics and metadata on household income and expenditure are available at http://laborsta.ilo.org .
1.6 Social protection
Social Security Schemes
1.6 Social Security Schemes
• The new ILO Social Security Inquiry collects statistics on social security expenditure, financing, coverage and benefit levels from both developed and developing countries. Its revised methodological approach is compatible to the extent possible with SNA, with the EUROSTAT-ESSPROS approach to social protection revenue, and expenditure statistics, with OECD Social Protection Expenditure database and with IMF's 2001 Government Finance Statistics guidelines. In addition, coverage and benefit level data are collected and used for constructing coverage indicators. The ILO social security inquiry presents an inventory of national social protection schemes in order to collect data directly from the institutions that manage each of them, especially data on the coverage of the population, contributions and benefit levels and expenditure. In many countries, neither statistical offices nor ministries of welfare and social affairs collect data on all social protection programmes administered by different agencies. Data are collected and disseminated through the ILO Social Security Database, which contains an on-line data entry module that is fed by the responsible ministries, statistical offices and institutions administering social security schemes as well as automatic import utilities to include data from external compatible databases (such as SOCX OECD social security expenditure data). A limited and regularly updated set of indicators on social security expenditure and coverage is now available for most Eastern European countries. First results for nine countries in South-Eastern Europe are summarized in ILO (2005): Social Security Spending in South-Eastern Europe, Budapest: ILO.
• Historical data (1949-1993) on revenues and expenditure of social security schemes from 22 European countries are available in a database on-line, developed by EURODATA Research Archive of the Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES) in cooperation with the ILO. Data for other countries are available on-line on the ILO website at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/secsoc/areas/stat/css/index.htm.
• The ILO has also published a series of in-depth reports on social protection, which contain a broad range of statistics (Social Protection Expenditure and Performance Reviews - SPER). UNECE countries covered are Poland and the Slovak Republic.
• The ILO - in cooperation with the Council of Europe - has developed a manual on statistical data requirements and indicators related to reporting on compliance with ILO Convention No. 102 on minimum standards in social security and with the European Code of Social Security.
• The International Social Security Association (ISSA) continues its work to develop the statistical capacity of its members in developing countries and contributes to the development of international standards on social security/social protection statistics.
• The ILO intends to review and, if necessary, propose revisions to further develop the international standards on statistics of social security/social protection as laid down in the Resolution concerning the development of social security statistics, adopted by the 9th ICLS (1957). This was discussed at the 17th ICLS.
• Collection and analysis of statistical data on the performance of national social protection schemes in certain countries as well as on the extent of coverage by and exclusion from social protection (Social Protection Expenditure and Performance Reviews - SPER).
• Collection and analysis of statistical data on social protection expenditure, financing, coverage and benefit levels, available on the ILO Social Security Department Databases (with a broader focus than the previous "Inquiry into the Cost of Social Security"), see: the Social Security Inquiry http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/secsoc/areas/stat/ssi.htm, the social security expenditure and mechanisms databases (http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/secsoc/areas/stat/sso.htm ) and the ILO socio-economic security database (http://www.ilo.org/dyn/sesame/ifpses.home).
• Collection of detailed statistical data for actuarial valuations of social security schemes.
• Within the framework of the activities on the informal economy, the Social Protection Sector is developing a module with a limited number of questions on social protection to be integrated into the regular household surveys. This is undertaken by all units in collaboration with the Department of Statistics with the aim of enhancing the use of this particular source to collect relevant data on social protection.
• Forthcoming book on social security statistics in the ILO's "Quantitative Methods in Social Protection" series.
• In collaboration with the ILO and the United States Social Security Administration, the International Social Security Association (ISSA) collects information on the range of contingencies covered by social security schemes and disseminates it with Social Security Programmes throughout the World (SSPTW) (see http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw) and with the ISSA information service, Social Security Worldwide. The ISSA also collects data on the legal framework and governance of Public Social Insurance Reserve Funds as well as their asset allocation and expenditure.
1.10 Political and other community activities
Trade Unions and Collective Bargaining Agreements
Ongoing methodological work:
Questionnaires will be sent to all ILO Member States in July 2010 to collect statistics on trade union membership and collective bargaining coverage available in national statistics offices and ministries of labour, as well as the corresponding metadata. This collection aims to provide a comprehensive account of available statistical information on these topics and to provide inputs to the ILO for developing international guidelines for their measurement to enhance their comparability.
2.2 Economic accounts
Ongoing methodological work:
• The ILO is continuing its methodological work on statistics of informal employment, on the basis of the guidelines endorsed by the 17th ICLS (2003) as a supplement to the 15th ICLS resolution concerning statistics of employment in the informal sector. A technical manual on surveys of informal employment and the informal sector is being prepared in cooperation with the Delhi Group.
• Following a request by the International Labour Conference in June 2002, the ILO continues to assist countries in the collection, analysis and dissemination of statistics on the informal economy.
• Developmental work is under way to produce statistics on cooperatives in collaboration with COOP. A paper will be finalised in 2010 that will be published. Measurement of cooperatives will be recommended in ongoing technical assistance to countries.
• On the basis of an agreement which sets the framework for cooperation, the ILO and the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) continue collaborating in the area of employment and decent work in tourism. The agreement was approved by the ILO Governing Body at its 301st Session (March 2008) and ratified by the General Assembly of the UNWTO. Prior to the agreement, a new chapter on employment in the tourism industries was prepared and included in the 2008 International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics.
• The agreement is geared towards (a) improvement of reliability of data on employment in the tourism industries; (b) setting up and testing of a core set of decent work statistical indicators for measuring progress towards decent work in the tourism industries; (c) development of international guidelines on best practices of measuring employment in the tourism industries.
• In line with the agreement, a joint ILO/UNWTO publication entitled Technical Guide on Best Practices of Measuring Employment in the Tourism Industries will be prepared and published in 2010.
2.5 Government finance, fiscal and public sector statistics
Social protection expenditure and revenues
• The ILO Social Security Inquiry collects statistics on social security expenditure and financing; its methodological approach is compatible as far as possible with the SNA, the Eurostat-ESSPROS approach to social protection revenue and expenditure statistics, the OECD Social Protection Expenditure database and the IMF's 2001 Government Finance Statistics guidelines (see 1.6 for more details).
• The ILO, as a focal point for consumer price indices within the UN system, has continued to:
(i ) collect and disseminate annual and monthly consumer price indices for some 200 countries and to produce and disseminate descriptions of the national methodologies underlying these indices;
(ii) collect and disseminate data on food prices through the former ILO October Inquiry; as part of the Department of Statistics' revision process, the food prices section of the October Inquiry, will also be reviewed in 2010.
(iii) promote implementation of the international standards on CPI; and
(iv) provide technical assistance to member States.
• The ILO continues to actively participate in the work of the Intersecretariat Working Group on Price Statistics (IWGPS).
(ii) As an agency responsible for the coordination of future revisions of the CPI Manual, ILO will continue maintaining the electronic version of the CPI manual on-line (see http://www.ilo.org/stat/index.htm). A number of chapters have already been updated. The webpage contains the original version, errata and the latest corrected version.
2.8 Labour cost
Ongoing methodological work:
• A manual on the measurement of wages will be prepared that will provide guidance concerning various concepts of income related to employment (i.e. labour cost, earnings, wage rates, employment related income, employee income and income from self employment) as well as guidance on the different approaches to measuring wages through establishment and household surveys and administrative records. This manual will be produced in collaboration with other international organisations and with national statistical institutes.
• Training and technical assistance will continue to be provided on wage statistics.
• Data on average wages by sex and industry, as well as occupational wages and hours of work have been collected through the former ILO October Inquiry since 1983 and are available on the ILO statistical website (http://laborsta.ilo.org) and on CD-ROM.
• The occupational wages section of the former ILO October Inquiry (in which data have been collected from all countries on wage rates and normal hours of work, and earnings and hours actually worked/paid for in 159 occupations and 49 industry groups, by sex) is being revised in order to streamline the data collection and dissemination process and improve the quality of data collected.
• Data on current minimum wages and the legal framework are regularly compiled and are available on the ILO website at http://www.ilo.org/travaildatabase/servlet/minimumwages.
3.3.2 Gender and special population groups
• The ILO database on employment by occupation and sex (SEGREGAT) is updated periodically and disseminated on the ILO statistical website laborsta.ilo.org.
• The new ILO Yearbook Volume 2: "Country profiles" presents data for basically all population categories, including total and share of women.
• A database on the effect of civil status and presence of young children on the most important labour variables will be developed, in coordination with ILO-GENDER.
• Training and technical assistance will continue to be provided on gender mainstreaming in statistics.
Ongoing methodological work
• The ILO has developed a methodology for child labour surveys, which has been implemented in almost 70 countries at the national level, including 10 countries in the European region. An additional 80 baseline surveys and 100 rapid assessments have been supported, targeting specific issues on child labour in particular geographical locations.
• The ILO has aided national capacity building activities by developing a child labour data repository, and information sharing among different departments for national and international policy development.
• The ILO continues to provide technical assistance to national statistics offices and other implementing agencies in order to enhance their capacity and improve the quality of child labour surveys.
• The ILO has teamed up with the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO and other international agencies in an effort to harmonize child labour data, child labour survey instruments, and child labour research efforts.
• International statistical measurement standards on child labour were established at the 18th ICLS (Geneva, 24 November - 5 December 2008).
• The ILO is pilot testing a methodology for making national level estimates of the worst forms of child labour other than hazardous forms in selected countries.
• The ILO is working towards preparing a new Global Report on Child Labour and revised Global Estimates and Trends in Child Labour that will be presented at the Hague Global Child Labour Conference scheduled to be held on 10 and 11 May 2010.
• Training in child labour data collection through rapid assessments and baseline surveys is being provided for building national capacities through regional workshops.
Data collection and dissemination:
• The child labour data collected through ILO supported child labour surveys, is available to interested researchers.
• The ILO data archive on child labour is the largest micro-data repositories on child labour and is continually updated. It provides micro data, meta data, survey questionnaires, and national reports from ILO supported child labour surveys and is available on-line at http://www.ilo.org/ipec/ChildlabourstatisticsSIMPOC/lang--en/index.htm
as well as off-line.
• A database system hosted by ILO called CLInfo, which helps organize and present a set of standardized indicators on child labour and other children activities (as a variation of DevInfo) has been available on-line since October 2009. CLInfo will expand the access to, and usages of, child labour data from ILO supported surveys, as well as raise awareness and assist in informed policy making on child labour.
3.3.5 Indicators related to the Millennium Development Goals
Following the recommendation of the 2005 World Summit and the Report by the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization (A/61/1) presented to the 61st session of the General Assembly a new Target "Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people" was included under MDG Goal 1.
• The ILO is responsible for the preparation of statistics and analysis on trends towards this target. The following four indicators were selected to monitor the progress:
o Growth rate of GDP per person employed
o Employment-to-population ratio
o Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day
o Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment
• The existing target on developing decent and productive work for youth, previously under Millennium Development Goal 8, is encompassed by the new target (under Goal 1).
• In addition to monitoring the progress under MDG Goal 1, the ILO continues producing regional and global estimates on one of the gender indicators under MDG Goal 3: Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector.
• ILO will be collecting data on the above MDG indicators.
• In March 2008 the Governing Body of the ILO endorsed the report of the December 2007 ILO tripartite Meeting of Experts on Labour Statistics, including the resolution adopting the International Standard Classification of Occupations, 2008 (ISCO-08) as an international statistical standard.
• The ISCO-08 structure is therefore final and is available for use on the ILO Website in English, French and Spanish. Definitions of categories in the classification have been uploaded to the ILO Website for information and comment. The index of occupations has been updated and is available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco88/index.htm
• It is planned to publish in print form the English version of ISCO-08 in 2010.
• All inquiries should be addressed to ISCO@ilo.org
4.3.1 Population and housing censuses, registers of population, dwellings and buildings
Economic characteristics in Population Censuses
• The Department of Statistics will be actively promoting the jointly published UN Statistics Division/ILO Handbook on the Measurement of the Economically Active Population through Population Censuses through training and seminars and providing technical advice, upon request.
4.5 Dissemination, data warehousing
• The ILO's statistical Website (http://laborsta.ilo.org) has continued to be maintained and updated on a weekly basis. This site gives users access to a broad range of data contained in the ILO's statistical databases and makes it possible to view and download information free of charge. The associated national meta-information for each series is also available on-line on the Web site. The website is trilingual in English, French and Spanish, and it will continue to be maintained and developed in these three languages.
• The Department of Statistics website including the LABORSTA application will be reviewed and restructured in 2010 in accordance with the anticipated changes in data collection methods. The new relational database will be interactive, more user-friendly and offer more up-to-date information on decent work.
• In line with the collection of new statistical material, the entire program of dissemination through printed publications and CD-ROMs will be revised and enhanced. The main dissemination tool will be the Department's new data dissemination website, which will be updated weekly.
• The possibility of collecting and disseminating data through SDMX (Statistical Data and Metadata Exchange) will be tested and if successful implemented on a large scale in our related activities.
5.2 Statistical programmes, priority setting, relationships with users and respondents (ILO)
• The ILO Department of Statistic was established in May 2009, which replaced the former ILO Bureau of Statistics, and is responsible, inter alia, for compiling and making available in a timely manner ILO statistics on the four pillars of Decent Work. The compilation, quality control and dissemination of ILO statistical information is now centrally managed and coordinated by the Department of Statistics. All statistical methodologies and databases carried out by different units within sectors and regions are coordinated by the Department of Statistics. All units, regions and sectors are requested to seek technical clearance from the Department of Statistics before disseminating and publishing global and regional statistical data.
• The Department defines and implements a statistical capacity-building programme for the Office and its constituents.
• The Director of the Department of Statistics serves as the ILO Chief Statistician and is consulted on all matters of data collection, statistical methodologies and major publications and releases of ILO statistical information.
5.5 Technological resources (including standards for electronic data exchange and data sharing)
Statistical Information Collection and Processing
• An important effort will be made to collect and disseminate new statistics and indicators, for short term and also annual data.
• As regards data collection, electronic questionnaires will be relied upon to a greater extent to collect data on new as well as more traditional indicators. Data received through electronic questionnaires will be automatically uploaded into the database for prompt dissemination. We will also continue to explore the possibilities of joint data collection with other international agencies (Eurostat, OECD and others), in order to alleviate the reporting burden on countries by similar international questionnaires. The possibility of exchanging data with Eurostat and OECD through SDMX will also be tested.
• The day to day operations and use of the database will be reviewed and modernized using a web-based version of the software used.
• In the near future, all the databases operated by the Department of STATISTICS will be restructured, coding systems will be revised, and the new databases will be migrated to a relational database management environment using Oracle.
All the satellite applications related to the preparation and production of the new programme of data collection, management and dissemination will also be migrated from a SAS (Statistical Analysis Software) environment to the new Oracle environment, and the use of the SAS software will be limited to the processing of data for the purpose of statistical analysis.
5.7 Technical cooperation and capacity building programmes
• The statistical capabilities of ILO constituents vary, and a considerable upgrading of capacity is needed in many areas. The ILO provides technical support for labour statistics to member States in the form of technical advice and assistance, training, manuals, and technical cooperation projects. This assistance is provided under the auspices of the ILO's Decent Work Country Programmes. It is demand-driven, depending on the availability of resources. Requests for assistance may derive from the application of the Labour Statistics Convention 1985 (160).
• Technical assistance is served from the ILO Offices in Budapest, Moscow and, in the case of Mongolia, Bangkok, and by national correspondents, and in Latin America, from the SIALC project office in Panama, as well as from ILO headquarters.
Training Programme of the ILO Department of Statistics
• In 2010, the ILO Department of Statistics' training programme will fully support its new and strengthened mandate and will focus, therefore, on two major training areas:
a) to meet the needs of ILO constituents to increase their capacity to produce reliable statistics for the best use in effective decision-making, to achieve decent work for all and;
b) to enhance ILO staff knowledge and use of modern statistical methods regarding data collection and analysis so as to optimize their service to member States, to assist them to meet their goals of Decent Work for all.
Separate technical training workshops on strengthening labour market statistics and information have already taken place in 2009. Further programmes will be delivered during 2010 with the ILO Training centre in Turin, Italy. The topics will cover labour force survey development, and labour market information, as well as administrative records