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 4.1 Remaining life expectancy achievement of 50 years at age 55

Definition

RLE at 55 divided by 50 to calculate the proportion of life expectancy achievement in the target of 105 years of life expectancy

Goal (rationale)

To capture the life expectancy aspect in determining the capacity for active ageing across EU countries.

Source

European Health and Life Expectancy Information System (EHLEIS)

Year

2009/2010

Notes

For details, see http://www.eurohex.eu/index.php?option=ehleisproject

 

4.2 Share of healthy life years in the remaining life expectancy at age 55

Definition

Healthy Life Years (HLY) a measure of disability-free life expectancy that combines information on quality and quantity of life. HLY measures the remaining number of years spent free of activity limitation.

Goal (rationale)

Capture the proportion of years spent in good health in the remaining life expectancy at 55 as an indicator of the capacity for active ageing.

Source

European Health and Life Expectancy Information System (EHLEIS)

Year

2009/2010

Notes

For details, see http://www.eurohex.eu/index.php?option=ehleisproject


4.3 Mental well-being

Definition

Mental well-being (using EQLS 2011 and WHO’s ICD-10 measurement)

Goal (rationale)

To capture mental well-being of older population aged 55+, so to complement the measure of physical health captured via the healthy life expectancy measure, with the help of an index that measures self-reported feelings of positive happy moods and spirits.

Survey question

Q45a: I have felt cheerful and in good spirits
Q45b: I have felt calm and relaxed
Q45c: I have felt active and vigorous
Q45d: I woke up feeling fresh and rested
Q45e: My daily life has been filled with things that interest me

Response categories are:

  1. All of the time
  2. Most of the time
  3. More than half of the time
  4. Less than half of the time
  5. Some of the time
  6. At no time
    The raw score is calculated by reversing the value order of the variable, and then totalling the figures of the five answers. The raw score converted so as to range from 0 to 25, 0 representing worst possible and 25 representing best possible quality of life. As recommended by WHO, the Major Depression (ICD-10) Inventory is defined if the raw score is below 13 (see http://www.who-5.org/ for more details).

Source

EQLS

Year

2011

Notes

Variable is derived using WHO's ICD-10 measurement

Caveats

The WHO-5 index has the limitation of being based on subjective response variable and thus it may be restricted in its international comparability.

 

4.4 Use of ICT

Definition

Share of people aged 55-74 using the internet at least once a week.

Goal (rationale)

This indicator aims to measure the degree to which older people's environments enable them to connect with others with the help of information and communication technologies, thus reflecting one aspect of their capacity for active ageing.

Survey question

(Specific response category selected for this indicator in bold)
'How often on average have you used a computer in the last 3 months?'(tick one)

  • Every day or almost every day
  • At least once a week (but not every day)
  • At least once a month (but not every week)
  • Less than once a month


    The question refers to internet use at least once a week (i.e. every day or almost every day or at least once a week but not every day) on average within the last 3 months before the survey. Use includes all locations and methods of access and any purpose (private or work/business related). [Indicator name: i_iuse]

Source

Eurostat, ICT Survey

Year

2010

Notes

A higher number of older people using the internet points to a larger ability to communicate with others, and engage actively in society. While excessive use of the internet can be detrimental to one's health, such phenomena have been observed mainly for younger people thus far. It is therefore reasonable to associate the use of internet among older people positively with their capacity for active ageing (no cap necessary).

 

4.5 Social connectedness

Definition

The indicator measures the share of people aged 55 or more that meet socially with friends, relatives or colleagues several times a week or every day. "Meet socially" implies meet by choice, rather than for reasons of either work or pure duty. The indicator measures contacts outside the household.

Goal (rationale)

Social contacts are a key element of an active and fulfilling life, and also vital to human health, both mentally and physically. The specific measure focuses on social meetings by choice, thus duty or work related meetings are excluded.

Survey question

(Specific response category selected for this indicator in bold)
'How often socially meet with friends, relatives or colleagues?'
Answers: 1 never, 2 less than once a month, 3 once a month, 4 several times a month, 5 once a week, 6 several times a week, 7 every day.

Source

European Social Survey (core questionnaire)

Year

2010 / 2008 (for LV and RO) / 2006 (for AT) / 2004 (for LU) / 2002 (for IT)

Notes

The indicator measures contacts outside the household, thus in case the household size is large (multiple generations living together) the bulk of social contacts may take place within the household, rather than outside.
Alternative data: We examined the potential use of EU-SILC 2006 Special module on social participation, but rejected it due to the lack of replicability. EU-SILC questions differ from those in the ESS and the answer categories have a reverse order (the latter is expected to have an influence on responses): 'Frequency of getting together with relatives' and 'Frequency of getting together with friends' Answers: 1 Daily, 2 Every week, 3 Several times a month, 4 Once a month, 5 At least once a year, 6 Never.
Robustness check: We compared the outcomes of the ESS and EU-SILC 2006 surveys. In order to control for the potential framing effect related to the reverse order of answer categories, we have created country groupings (quartiles) showing the ranking of particular countries. The comparison of these country groups presents a relatively stable picture across countries. The countries with a low level of social contacts according to the EU-SILC data set also rank in the bottom or 2nd quartile according to the ESS survey. Similarly, it is the case at the top end.

Caveats

EU countries missing: LT, MT
The indicator measures only the intensity of contacts, not their quality.

 
4.6 Educational attainment of older persons

Definition

Percentage of older persons aged 55-74 with upper secondary or tertiary educational attainment.

Goal (rationale)

The indicator measures relatively high levels of education, but it is not restricted to tertiary education only, given the generally lower prevalence of tertiary education among the older people. Relatively high educational attainment reflects the acquisition of key competences in the shape of knowledge, skills and attitudes. These competences provide added value for social cohesion and active citizenship by offering flexibility and adaptability, satisfaction and motivation.

Survey question

(Specific response category selected for this indicator in bold)
Highest ISCED level attained?
Answers: 0 pre-primary, 1 primary, 2 lower secondary, 3 (upper) secondary, 4 post-secondary non tertiary, 5 tertiary

Source

EU-Labour Force Survey

Year

2010

Notes

Education attainment level is defined as the percentage of people of a given age class (excluding the ones that did not answer to the question 'highest level of education or training attained') having attained a given education level: ISCED 3 (Lower/ upper) secondary education.
This level of education typically begins at the end of full time compulsory education if such a system is applied. More specialisation may be observed at this level than at ISCED level 2 and often teachers need to be more qualified or specialised. The entrance age to this level is typically 15 to 16 years. The educational programmes included at this level typically require the completion of 9 years of full-time education (since the beginning of level 1) or a combination of education and vocational or technical experience for admission.






 

 

 

 

 

 

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